Overview Severs? disease usually presents with pain in either one or both of a sufferer?s heels. The area can be sore or tender, particularly first thing in the morning or after squeezing. Because the pain is focussed on the heel, an important part of the foot that makes contact with the ground through virtually all movement, sufferers often have to limp to alleviate their discomfort. The pain of Severs? disease is at its worst after any exertion that involves contact between a heel and the ground, particularly strenuous exercise like running or sport. The condition is caused by the wear and tear of structures in the heel, most significantly the heel bone and any attached tendons. Severs? disease is prevalent in young children who are extremely active, particularly as the heel and its attached tendons are still growing in the age group the condition most commonly affects (7-14).
Causes During the growth spurt of early puberty, the heel bone (also called the calcaneus) sometimes grows faster than the leg muscles and tendons. This can cause the muscles and tendons to become very tight and overstretched, making the heel less flexible and putting pressure on the growth plate. The Achilles tendon (also called the heel cord) is the strongest tendon that attaches to the growth plate in the heel. Over time, repeated stress (force or pressure) on the already tight Achilles tendon damages the growth plate, causing the swelling, tenderness, and pain of Sever's disease. Such stress commonly results from physical activities and sports that involve running and jumping, especially those that take place on hard surfaces, such as track, basketball, soccer, and gymnastics.
Symptoms Often the condition is self limiting; meaning as the growth plate fuses to the rest of the heel bone, the pain will subside. However in some cases the child will have so much discomfort that they will be unable to walk comfortably if left untreated. Therefore, heel pain in children should always by evaluated by a physician.
Diagnosis Radiography. Most of the time radiographs are not helpful because the calcaneal apophysis is frequently fragmented and dense in normal children. But they Can you get an operation to make you taller? be used to exclude other traumas. Ultrasonography. could show the fragmentation of secondary nucleus of ossification of the calcaneus in severs?s disease. This is a safe diagnostic tool since there is no radiation. This diagnostic tool can also be used to exclude Achilles tendinitis and/or retrocalcaneal bursitis.
Overview Fallen arches, also known as flat feet or pes planus, may be present at birth or develop later in life. The midfoot normally exhibits a slight arch, keeping this region raised during walking. Absence of the normal arch causes flattening of the sole. Many people with fallen arches have no associated symptoms, while others experience foot pain or fatigue. Treatment for fallen arches depends on the severity of the condition and associated symptoms.
Causes A common cause of foot arch pain is a stress fracture. They tend to occur from repeated overloading of one of the foot bones from activities such as jumping and running especially if you have suddenly increased your activity level. The breaks in the bone may be small but they can be extremely painful. Stress fractures of the metatarsal bones or the navicular can cause anything from mild to severe foot arch pain. The Tibialis Posterior muscle plays a very important role in supporting the medial arch of the foot. Posterior Tibial Tendonitis can occur either through repetitive use e.g. high impact sports such as soccer or tennis, or from an injury e.g. a fall. This causes the tendon to become inflamed or even torn, resulting in pain on bottom of foot. This pain usually gets worse with activity or when standing for long periods. If the problem persists, the inner side of the foot (known as the medial longitudinal arch of the foot) gradually collapses down, causing flat feet. A simple test for this condition is to stand on one leg and rise up onto your tiptoes. If you cannot, it indicates a problem with the Posterior Tibial tendon. Treatment usually consists of rest, ice, exercises, orthotics and physical therapy.
Symptoms Symptoms of plantar fasciitis may occur anywhere along the arch, but it is most common near its attachment to the heel bone. Symptoms of plantar fasciitis vary, but the classic symptom is pain after rest--when you first get out of bed in the morning, or when you get up after sitting down for a while during the day. This is known as "post-static dyskinesia." The pain usually diminishes after a few minutes of walking, sometimes even disappearing, but the pain is commonly felt again the longer you're on the foot. Fasciitis can be aggravated by shoes that lack appropriate support, especially in the arch area, and by the chronic irritation of long-periods of standing, especially on concrete, and by being overweight. Other factors which influence this condition are gender (females get this more than men), age (30s to 50s are most common), and those with flatter-than-normal feet. It doesn't help that fascia doesn't heal particularly quickly. This is because it has relatively poor circulation, which is why it's white in colour.
Diagnosis The doctor will take a brief history to determine How can I increase my height after 18? the injury occurred. If necessary, a thorough physical exam may be conducted to evaluate for any other injuries. Taking your workout shoes to the exam may also provide valuable information to the medical practitioner. Both feet will be physically and visually examined by the medical practitioner. The foot and arch will be touched and manipulated possibly with a lot of pressure and inspected to identify obvious deformities, tender spots, or any differences in the bones of the foot and arch.
Non Surgical Treatment How the pain in the bottom of your foot is treated will depend heavily on the cause of the pain. Diagnosing the pain while it?s in the early stages is important when determining the best treatment options. If the pain is mild to moderate, simple improvements in footwear can help reduce the symptoms. Most patients must use the RICE method for effective treatment. RICE stands for Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation. This is a popular treatment used by athletes. It involves resting the foot, icing it for fifteen to twenty minute intervals, compressing the foot with a bandage, and elevating it at least twelve inches above the heart. Ant-inflammatory and pain medications are also sometimes used to treat bottom-of-foot pain. For more serious cases, steroid injections or foot surgery may help reduce pain and swelling and correct the underlying condition (if there is one.) If you suffer from a severe case of plantar fasciitis and non-surgical methods fail, your doctor may recommend cortisone injections to relieve the pain. If cortisone injections fail, your doctor may recommend a surgical procedure that involves cutting and releasing the plantar fascia.
Surgical Treatment As with most surgeries, patients and physicians should consider the surgery only after other, less invasive treatments have proven unproductive. Indications for surgery include Pain. Inability to function. Failure to improve after a six-month course of specific, directed physical therapy. Failure to improve after using arch supports, orthotics, or ankle and foot bracing. Once patients are at that point, the good news is that the procedure has considerably better outcomes than more traditional flat foot surgery. In the past, surgeons would realign and fuse the three hind joints, which would cause patients to lose motion, leaving them with a significantly stiff hind foot, With these newer procedures, if the foot is still flexible, surgeons can realign it and usually restore a close-to-normal or functional range of motion in the joints.
Prevention Early in the treatment of arch pain, consideration needs to be given to the cause and strategies put in place to prevent it happening again. Advice should be sought on the adequacy of footwear. Stretching exercises should be continued long after the symptoms are gone. Foot orthoses should be used if structural imbalances are present. Activity levels and types of activities (occupational and sporting) need to be considered and modified accordingly.
Stretching Exercises Ankle evert or strengthening. Lie on your side with your feet hanging off the end of your bed or a weight bench. Bend the toes of the foot that is closer to the ceiling slightly toward your head. This is the starting position. Now raise your toes toward the ceiling while keeping the rest of your leg stationary. Return to the starting position. Reps. 10-15. Now point your toes slightly away from your head. This is the starting position. Raise your toes toward the ceiling. Return to the starting position. Reps. 10-15. Ankle invertor strengthening. Same as above, but do the exercises with the foot that is closer to the floor. Dorsiflexor strengthening. Sit on a desk, table, or counter so that your feet don?t touch the ground. Let your feet dangle comfortably. Bend your foot upward as far as you can comfortably go. Do not let your foot pull inward or outward. Return to the starting position. Reps. 10-15.
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